Peter Paul Rubens was born in Antwerp, the son of a lawyer. He became master of the Guild of Painters of Antwerp in 1598. In 1600, he visited Italy to study ancient sculpture and the Old Masters. He returned in 1608 and was appointed court painter by Archduke Albert. He mainly produced biblical subjects, completing some 60 altarpieces in the late 1610s and early 1620s. He became Advisor and Agent to Archduchess Isabella, helping unite the Netherlands. From 1629 he was Secretary to the Privy Council of the Netherlands, visiting London to achieve an Anglo-Spanish peace agreement. During this visit he accepted several commissions, including ceiling canvases for the Banqueting House for Charles I. In 1630 he returned to Antwerp. He died at 62.
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